Recently, a 4000 years old settlement is discovered by The Odisha Institute of Maritime and South East Asian Studies (OIMSEAS) in India. This archaeological site is revealed in Durgadevi village (Remuna Tehsil) of Balasore district of Orrisa state of India. OIMSEAS had conducted horizontal excavations with the permission of the Archaeological Survey of India.
The site was inhabited by people of multiple subsequent cultures. The sequence interpreted by the researchers of OIMSEAS is:
- Chalcolithic Phase: 2000 BCE to 1000 BCE
- Iron Age: 1000 BCE to 400 BCE
- Early Historic Era: 400 BCE to 200 BCE
As per the information from the Archaeological Survey of India, this site comprises a circular 4.9 mud fortification. It is located in between two rivers, i.e., Son and Burahabalang. The site shows evidence of ancient 4000 years old water management system. Two minor nullas (water streams) i.e., Gangahara and Prassana, form natural moat for this archaeological site.
As of now, archaeologists have recovered multiples pieces of evidence and artifacts. It includes:
- Chalcolithic period: A base of the circular hut(rammed), black on red-painted ceramic, red slipped ware, black slipped ware, copper items.
They are the symbols of an initially settled life based on agriculture, fishing, and the domestication of animals.
- Iron Age Period: Black burnished ware, black and redware, iron items such as iron nails, arrowheads, the crucible, and slag of numerous types.
- Early historic period: Red pottery, terracotta ear studs, bangles, beads, etc.
The chief minister of Orrisa state said that “The use of iron is a landmark phase in the growth of civilization in Odisha, particularly in north Odisha. There are several iron age sites discovered by various archaeologists in the upper and middle Mahanadi valley, but in north Odisha, this is the first site,”.