The west might consider Alexander as the greatest conqueror of the world but for the east, Mongols held this title. In the 13th century, Mongols were known for their Golden Horde. Although, it comprises of both i.e., Turks and Mongols.
The Golden Horde was a Mongol khanate. It was formed by the Mongols in the Thirteen century AD. Its literary meaning was the Great state. Etymologically, the meaning of the Horde is camp. Initially, it was Mongol but later it became a Turkish Khanate. Golden Horde finds its origin in the Mongol empire’s NW subdivision. After the disintegration of the Mongol Realm, Golden Horde transformed into a distinct khanate. At that time, it was famous as the Kipchak Khanate. The Golden Horde always followed the aristocratic patterns of rule. Apart from the rulers, the common people’s economy was based on animal husbandry. The Golden Horde supported widespread commerce with Mamlūk and Genoese people of the Mediterranean region.
Batu Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, was the founder of the Golden Horde. He conquered the Russian lands with the help of his strong Mongol Kipchak armies. His capital Sarai Batu was situated near the Volga river. He died in the year 1255. After his demise, Khanate suffered some losses but it survived successfully for the next 100 years. The Golden Horde was one of the most powerful realms in the world during the reign of Uzbeg Khan who ruled in the first half of the Fourteenth century. Up to that time, Uzbeg Khan had accepted Islam.
Also Read: Story Of Lost Tomb Of Genghis Khan
At the peak time, the Golden Horde’s boundaries comprised of whole Central Asia, Siberia, East Europe up-to Black Sea, and the Caucasus Mountains. It also consists of old areas of Ilkhanate (regions of Mongols). In the second half of the fourteenth century, this dynasty had also faced some powerful political challenges from within the empire. But later, at the end of the century, Tokhtamysh unified the Khanate.
Everything in the world comes to an end. The same happened with the Golden Horde. In 1396, Timur attacked the Golden Horde Khanate. After that invasion, the Khanate had disintegrated and divided into multiple small khanates of the Tatar region. The Black Death was also considered as the reason for the decline of the Golden Horde. After the first half of the 15th century, people called them just “Great Horde”. The later disintegrated khanates in the west Asian regions prominently spoke Turkish dialects. Some khanates like the Kazakh and Crimean Khanate had survived up to the end of the medieval period (18th and 19th century respectively) of the Asian regions.